A-Freud World

Freudian Farewell

Hopefully by now, your know of Freud has been extended and your interest in his subject, peaked!

For more interesting information and a good understanding of what the Legend himself was all about, be sure to check out these interesting videos linked below:

 

1. School of life- Psychotherapy

This playlist provides you with the major chunk of what is there to know about the topic. The imagery is stylistic in nature and will engage you beyond doubt.
WARNING
Explicit images.

 

2. Freud Museum London- What is Psychoanalysis?

It is a four part series by psychologists who follow the Freudian or Psychoanalytic school of thought. The imagery is again stylistic (borders on bizarre) it is a educational venture of the Freud Museum, and is hence legitimate information. It may not impress someone looking for plain info, but is definitely engaging enough for a leisure watch.

WARNING
Explicit imagery.

 

3. Stillpoint Spaces Berlin- The History of Psychoanalysis

This is a three-part lecture; hence it may not engage a visual person, but it does provide all the vital information in a very systematic and organised way. It also takes up a new structure, instead of tracing chronologically from Freud, it takes up the broad contours of what Psychoanalysis id, from its standing as (or as not) a science, to Psychoanalysis as a way of life.

 

Signing off from A-Freud World,

Harsiddhi Thakral (1733242)

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A-Freud World

Freud and Religion

Not only due to the time, but because of freud being Jewish, religion played a central role in his successes and downfalls. Freud saw God as an illusion that was to be replaced by science and reason due to the advancement of the civilisation. Freud claimed to have estranged himself from any and every religion, but still identified as a Jew. He faced antisemitism in his university years- “I found thatI was expected to feel myself inferior and an alien because I was a Jew.”

Freud wrote extensively, not only in general, but also particularly on religion. Several of his writingscontain explanations for and against religion.

In Obsessive Actions and Religious Practices (1907), Freud proposed an analogy between neurosis and religion, calling ritualistic behaviour a ‘universal obsessional neurosis’. In Totem and Taboo, he wrote about incest and patricide and taboos created to curb them. In An Autobiographical Study Freud elaborated on the core idea of Totem and Taboo: “This view of religion throws a particularly clear light upon the psychological basis of Christianity, in which, it may be added, the ceremony of the totem-feast still survives with but little distortion in the form of Communion. In The Future of an
Illusion (1927), Freud refers to religion as an illusion which is “perhaps the most important item in the psychical inventory of a civilization”

Freud touched on religion in Civilization and its Discontents, Moses and Monotheism, The Question of a Weltanschauung, and like every other concept of his, Freud generated ample conjecture on his views on religion too.

Several psychoanalysts built on Freud’s view on religion. n a 1950 book entitled Christianity and Freud, Benjamin Gilbert Sanders draws parallels between the theory of psychoanalysis and Christian religion, referring to Jesus Christ as “the Great Psychiatrist” and Christians’ love for Christ as “a more positive form of the Transference. Several however, disagreed , like Alfred Adler who believed God was a projection which had been helpful to humanity”.

 

~ Harsiddhi Thakral (1733232) & Apoorva Nag (1733228)

A-Freud World

Freud and Libido

Mostly simply put, Freud termed sexual energy and the Libido. Per Freud, the libido is a part of the Id- the part of the mind associated with immediate gratification of needs. He believed that Id was the only component of the mind that exists since the birth of the individual- which could account for the hedonistic nature of humans.

Freud claimed that the libido is expressed differently at various points during the individual’s life, i.e., it is expressed according to the stage of psychosexual development the individual is in. Sometimes, this energy becomes too stuck to a certain stage of development and thus the person becomes “fixated” in that stage of development.

Freud also discussed the idea of the Libido’s energy being limited i.e., different mental processes require varying amounts of energy. For instance, the act of ‘repression’ requires a tremendous amount of psychic energy and such events impair the proper functioning of the mind.

 

~ Neha Nimbal (1733261)

A-Freud World

Freud Museum

The Freud Museum, at 20 Maresfield Gardens in Hampstead, was the home of Sigmund Freud and his family when they escaped Austria following the Nazi annexation in 1938. It remained the family home until Anna Freud, the youngest daughter, died in 1982. This
house has been converted into what is now known as the freud museum.

The museum has all the antiques possessed by the family. The centeral display is the work desk of freud with his belongings arranged on display. It also old memories of Anna Freud and several of remenants of her and her groundbreaking work In psychoanalysis.

Undoubtedly the most famous piece of furniture in all the collection is Freud’s psychoanalytic couch, on which all of his patients reclined. The couch is remarkably comfortable and is covered with a richly coloured Iranian rug with chenille cushions piled on top. Other fine Oriental rugs, Heriz and Tabriz, cover the floor and tables
The museum has been featured in several movies, holds regular exhibitions and also undertakes educational endeavours including a web series. Regular workshops are held and all information is available on the website.

 

For a virtual tour of the museum, be sure to check the link below:

 

~ Vanchha Chandrayan (1733297) & Apoorva Nag (1733228)

A-Freud World

Criticisms Psychoanalysis received

The psychoanalysis approach does have its own weaknesses or limitations like a lot of approaches often do. The psychoanalytic jargon is confusing rather than being clear about its concepts. The ideas that it presents, like penis envy, Oedipus, are outdated when in comparison to the contemporary world and theorists and practitioners question the usefulness of these concepts. Psychoanalysis was established in an era different to the one that exists now.

This approach also lacks a theory of intervention and does not focus enough on the technique. It leaves a lot of loose ends which is often open to interpretations that can do more harm than good. This approach uses a lot of analysis of the past and does not emphasise as much on other aspects, this disables it and can lead to “analysis paralysis”.

This theory also lacks the insight from different levels of analysis, namely biological, cognitive and socio-cultural. Different perspectives considered often improve the viability of an approach or theory. Psychoanalysis rejects patients who are considered to be inappropriate for it (perhaps psychotic, borderline). This reduces the sample size from where the information could be collected.

Sigmund Freud, while developing this method ignored the importance of individual differences. During therapy, critics claim that some therapists are not helping patients recover from repressed memories but rather planting false memories. This endangers the psychological health of an individual as we know that memory is claimed to be reconstructive in nature. Moreover, this challenges the ethical aspect of the approach.

All the therapies and theories have weaknesses that can be overlooked if it works for the patient. Problems of ethics, lack of usage of techniques, sample size and various other things with often occur and hinder an approach; the goal is to minimize these obstacles.

-Kshitija Yerolkar (1733250) & Ritika Agrawal (1733271)

A-Freud World

Karen Horney

Although a Neo-freudian, Karen Horney’s views questioned some of Freud’s most popular views such as that of Penis envy and more. She built the foundations for feminist psychology.

Karen was actually the first woman trained as a psychoanalyst.

One of Horney’s most significant contributions to the field of psychology include that of “unconscious anxiety”. She believed that its roots could be traced back to the childhood of the individual where they may have experienced abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse or any other traumatic event. Her theories stated that children normally adopted coping mechanisms relating to anxiety, namely, ‘moving towards people’, ‘moving away from people’& ‘moving against people’.

To further understand Horney’s theories about anxiety, we must consider her views on Neurosis. This Neo-Freudian believed that neurosis was an unhealthy way of coping up with relationships. The individual often projects their inadequacies on the other person in the relationship. Gradually, their behavior pushes people out of their lives.

 

Moving away from people-

In this, Horney suggests that the neurotic person isolates themselves from other individuals because they believe that if they aren’t surrounded by anyone, there will be no one to hurt them. It is true, it protects them from the pains that a relationship could bring but it also prevents them from experiencing the positive parts of a relationship. Their isolation causes a huge void in their personalities.

 

Moving towards people-

Over here, Horney claimed that some individuals seek acceptance and love. So, in order to obtain the two, they begin moving towards people. They feel the need to be the ideal and perfect individual. They tend to be involved and feel the need for constant approval. In most relationships, they seem like the ‘clingy’ person. They tend to get attached very quickly. Often, this leads their counterparts in the relationship to leave.

 

Moving against people –

Horney elucidated that this coping mechanism results in people forcing their power on to individuals surrounding them. These types of personalities tend to selfish or bossy, portraying them in a very aggressive image. These people tend to believe that other people make entrances into their lives, just to ruin it. So instead of suffering damage from someone else, they cause the damage themselves.

 

 

One of the reasons Freud stirred up great amounts of controversy were because of his views on women. Years and years later, to counter his ideas of ‘penis envy’ Karen Horney came up with feminist psychology where she expressed her idea of ‘womb envy’. She suggested that because men cannot bear children, they become envious of women. Owing to this, they tend to strive for success in other fields.

 

To this day, Karen Horney has been believed to be much ahead of her times.

~ Mullai Manian Sampath (1733255)

A-Freud World

Escaping Freud

Even though the claims of Psychoanalysis were debunked and rejected by mainstream psychology a long time ago, the influence of Sigmund Freud is seemingly inescapable even in the present day. With two factions having bipolar views on the man, the debate on the man (or the legend?) constitutes one of the most absorbing narratives. The few that veneer him as a God, stop at nothing to point out the seemingly revolutionary ideas and the originality of his concepts. For a very long time, Psychoanalysis did lead to the advancement of Psychology, it also was the motor that led to deinstitutionalisation, transferring the treatment of mental illnesses from the hospice to the office.

 

On the other end of the spectrum are revisionist scholars, infamous as ‘Freud-bashers’, led by Fredreick Crews. These scholars have stopped at nothing to disrepute everything that Freud has ever done, from calling the theory based on unscientific, plagiarised data, ( In 1975, the Nobel Prize-winning medical biologist Peter Medawar called psychoanalytic theory “the most stupendous intellectual confidence trick of the twentieth century.”) to even destroying his image as a man of integrity by claiming that he impregnated his sister-in-law, got the baby aborted and created a fictitious case history out of it.

 

The moderates (however there are hardly any) recognise the pros and cons, and postulate that the success of the theory can be attributed to the lack of any better alternative theory (  anthropologist Tanya Luhrmann’s explanation is simple: alternative theories were worse. “Freud’s theories were like a flashlight in a candle factory,”) accordingly, the downfall can be attributed to the coming up of biomedical theory, which rendered psychodynamism something synonymous to not only an unfeasible method, but also a scam.

For more information visit:

https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2017/08/28/why-freud-survives

~ Harsiddhi Thakral (1733242)

A-Freud World

MEMES GALORE!

Sigmund Freud is one of the greatest thinkers that the race has ever seen, his fame is considered  equal to that of William Shakespeare. But along with being a statue of brilliance, Freud’s views have also made him the butt of several jokes. So here are, what we feel the best Freud memes, available online.

Caution.

We are a-freud this may lead to a slip due to laughing so hard!

A-Freud World · Uncategorized

Psychodynamics

 

Psychodynamics is an approach to psychology where the emphasis lays on the systematic study of the psychological forces that underlie human behaviour, emotions and feelings and how they might relate to early experience. This approach includes all the theories that see human functioning based upon the interaction of drives and forces within the individual, particularly unconscious, and between the different structures of personality.  Freud’s idea of psychodynamics classifies the personality into three parts:

  1. ID- The pleasure principle
  2. EGO- The reality principle
  3. SUPEREGO- The morality principle

He discusses how the interaction between these parts causes conflicts and affects the human behaviour. His concept of the conscious, sub-conscious and unconscious defines the structure of the mind. According to him, id is a part of your unconscious and ego and superego belong to the conscious.

However, other than Freudian theories there are other theorists who have contributed to psychodynamics as a framework of knowledge. Since a lot of us already have a slight idea about Freud’s contributions, let’s take a look at Carl Jung. Carl Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who founded analytical psychology. He was an early supporter of Freud because of their common interest in the unconscious.

His contributions have varied from Archetypes to Shadow to Collective Unconscious. His ideas have, more often than not, clashed with those of Freud himself. By far the most important difference between Jung and Freud is Jung’s idea of the collective unconscious. This is his most original and controversial contribution to personality theory. This is a level of unconscious shared with other members of the human species comprising latent memories from our ancestral and evolutionary past. ‘The form of the world into which [a person] is born is already inborn in him, as a virtual image’ (Jung, 1953, p. 188).

The concept of Archetypes arose from this one was his most major contributions. It refers to unclear underlying forms or the archetypes-as-such from which emerge images and motifs such as the mother, the child, the trickster, and the flood among others. History, culture and personal context shape these manifest representations thereby giving them their specific content. Carl’s thoughts on the theory of libido also clashed with that of Freud’s. While Freud explained libido as the sexual energy, Carl said that it wasn’t just sexual energy but rather generalised it as psychic energy. This energy motivated the individual in a number of ways like creatively, spiritually and intellectually.

The principles of psychodynamics capture a lot more other theories that conflict each other but discuss the personality theories and structure of the mind. Despite this, psychodynamic theory has been criticised to be unscientific in its analysis of human behaviour. Many of the concepts central to Freud’s theories are subjective, and as such, difficult to test scientifically.

 

~ Kshitija Amar Yerolkar (1733250) & Ritika Agarwal (1733271)