FIRST CRUSADE (1096-99)
Four multitudes of Crusaders were shaped from troops of various Western European districts, driven by Raymond of Saint-Gilles, Godfrey of Bouillon, Hugh of Vermandois and Bohemond of Taranto (with his nephew Tancred). These gatherings withdrew for Byzantium in August 1096. A less sorted out band of knights and normal people known as the “General population’s Crusade” set off before the others under the charge of a famous minister known as Peter the Hermit. Disregarding Alexius’ recommendation to sit tight for whatever remains of the Crusaders, Peter’s armed force crossed the Bosporus toward the beginning of August. In the primary significant conflict between the Crusaders and Muslims, Turkish powers pounded the attacking Europeans at Cibotus.
Another gathering of Crusaders, drove by the famous Count Emicho, did a progression of
slaughters of Jews in different towns in the Rhineland in 1096, drawing far reaching shock and causing a noteworthy emergency in Jewish-Christian relations
Consequences of First Crusade
The first crusade had caused the siege of Antioch in 1098. It also led to the fall of Jerusalem as a major consequence.
The attack of Jerusalem occurred from June 7 to June 15, 1099, amid the First Crusade. The peak of the First Crusade, the successful siege saw the Crusaders seize Jerusalem from the Fatimid Caliphate and established the frameworks for the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
Armies and Commanders
Raymond of Toulouse
Godfrey of Bouillon
Approximately 13,500 men
Approximately 1000-3000 men.
After the fall of Jerusalem, the Battle of Ascalon was fought.
SECOND CRUSADES (1147-1149)
Second Crusade lasted from 1147-1149.
Who started it?- While it was the main crusader state to be established, it was likewise the first to fall. The second Crusade was reported by Pope Eugene III, and was the first of the Crusades to be the driven by European lords, in particular Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany, with the assistance of other European nobles.
Where did it begin and end?– While the individuals who took an interest in the Second Crusade had presumably wanted to do as such before hearing the loss of Edessa to Zangi, the direness of the Crusade was likely strengthened by the misfortune.
Pope Eugenius III issued a crusading Bull ( Quantum predecessors) to Louis VII of France.
Failure of the second crusade-
The Second Crusade, though begun under the most favourable auspices, had an unhappy ending. Of the great host that set off from Europe only a few thousands escaped annihilation in Asia Minor at the hands of the Turks. Louis and Conrad, with the remnants of their armies, made a joint attack on Damascus, but had to raise the siege after a few days. This closed the crusade. The strength of both the French and German division of the expedition was wasted in Asia Minor and the crusade accomplished nothing.
THIRD CRUSADE (1187-92)
After various endeavors by the Crusaders of Jerusalem to catch Egypt, Nur al-Din’s powers (driven by the general Shirkuh and his nephew, Saladin) seized Cairo in 1169 and constrained the Crusader armed force to clear.
Upon Shirkuh’s consequent demise, Saladin expected control and started a battle of triumphs that quickened after Nur al-Din’s passing in 1174.
In 1187, Saladin started a noteworthy battle against the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. His troops for all intents and purposes annihilated the Christian armed force at the clash of Hattin, reclaiming the critical city alongside a lot of an area.
Shock over these annihilations roused the Third Crusade, drove by rulers, for example, the maturing Emperor Frederick Barbarossa (who was suffocated at Anatolia before his whole armed force achieved Syria), King Philip II of France, and King Richard I of England (known as Richard the Lionheart).
In September 1191, Richard’s powers vanquished those of Saladin in the clash of Arsuf, which would be the main genuine skirmish of the Third Crusade.
From the recovered city of Jaffa, Richard restored Christian control over a portion of the locale and moved toward Jerusalem, however he declined to lay attack to the city.
In September 1192, Richard and Saladin marked a peace settlement that restored the Kingdom of Jerusalem (however without the city of Jerusalem) and finished the Third Crusade.
The Fourth Crusade, 1202-1204, was a Western European armed expedition called by Pope Innocent III, originally intended to conquer Muslim-controlled Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt.
Instead, in April of 1204, the Crusaders of Western Europe invaded and sacked the Christian (Eastern Orthodox) city of Constantinople, capital of the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire). For three days, the army pillaged at will, and then the nobles imposed order and began a more systematic looting of the greatest city of Christendom.Around 20,000 Crusaders, 30,000 Byzantines and many civilians lost their lives.
The Fourth Crusade led to the partition of the Byzantine Empire, creation of Crusader State in Balkans, Crusader sack of Constantinople and Establishment of the Latin Empire.
In 1213, Innocent III began to plan the 5th Crusade when a six year truce ended in 1217. While Innocent died on July 16, 1216, his successor Pope Honorius the Third continued the preparations. The Fifth Crusade consisted of various expeditions against Egypt. In 1217-1218, Andrew the Second of Hungary tried to take Acre.
The Sixth Crusade was of monumental importance to Europe because it managed to achieve what previous Crusades had failed to do- Recapture of The Holy Land. The Crusade which began seven years after the failed Fifth crusade was brought about by Fredrick who sought to assuage his guilt at his lack of leadership of the Fifth Crusade by launching the Sixth Crusade to recover Jerusalem paid for by Holy Roman Empire Funds. It took place in 1228-1229.
The Seventh Crusade was not started by any Pope but by King Louis the Ninth of France who became known later as Saint Louis because of his great devotion to the Christian God. The year after the Mamluks captured Jerusalem from the Europeans in 1244 A.D., Louis announced the Crusade in 1245.
The eighth Crusade was launched by Louis the Ninth of France against the city Tunis in 1270. This crusade is sometimes also counted as part of the ninth crusade.
This Crusade is sometimes grouped with the eighth crusade and it is considered to be the last major medieval Crusade to the Holy Land. It took place in 1271-1272.
As the Crusaders battled, another tradition, known as the Mamluks, plummeted from previous slaves of the Islamic Empire, took control in Egypt. In 1260, Mamluk powers in Palestine figured out how to end the progress of the Mongols, an attacking power drove by Genghis Khan and his relatives, which had risen as a potential partner for the Christians in the district.
Under the heartless Sultan Baybars, the Mamluks devastated Antioch in 1268. Accordingly, Louis sorted out the Eighth Crusade in 1270. The underlying objective was to help the rest of the Crusader states in Syria, yet the mission was diverted to Tunis, where Louis passed on.
Edward I of England went up against another undertaking in 1271. This fight, which is frequently gathered with the Eighth Crusade however is some of the time alluded to as the Ninth Crusade, finished next to no and was viewed as the last noteworthy campaign to the Holy Land.
END OF THE CRUSADES
The Crusading movement came to an end by the close of the 13th century. The emperor Frederick II for a short time recovered Jerusalem by a treaty, but in 1244 A.D. the Holy City again became a possession of the Muslims. After 200 years of conflict, after a vast expenditure of wealth and human lives, the Holy Land remained in Muslim hands.
There were three reasons why Crusades failed. First, there was the inability of Eastern and Western Europe to cooperate in supporting the Holy Wars.
Second, the lack of sea-power worked against their success. They were not able to go to Syria by water directly but had to use a long sea- route.
Third, the Crusaders were never numerous enough to colonize so large a country as Syria and absorb its Muslim population.
The Crusades came to an end because after 2 centuries the old crusading enthusiasm died out and the old ideal of the Crusade as ‘The Way of God’ lost its spell. Men had begun to think less of winning future salvation by visits to distant shrines and to think more of their present duties to the world about them. They came to believe that Jerusalem could best be won as Christ and the Apostles had won it “by love, by prayers, and by the shedding of tears”.
EFFECTS OF THE CRUSADES
Although the crusades failed to capture Jerusalem, they had several major impacts on Western Europe. They increased the authority of the king sometimes nobles died in battle without leaving an heir in which the king gets their land. King passed taxes to pay for the crusades.
Results- The result of the crusades
The entire structure of European society changed during 12th and 13th century, and there was a time when this change was attributed largely to the crusades as only one albeit significant factor in Europe’s development.
LASTING EFFECTS OF THE CRUSADES
1. The crusades had greatly affected the important areas- The medieval society, the structure, the trade and the political system was changed from Feudalism to Monarchy in Europe.
The King, who was leading the crusades were also gaining more power.
Although they ultimately failed to drive the Muslims from either Jerusalem or Byzantium the crusades had considerably social consequences for Europe and Holy hand alike. They also promoted the expansion of trade and learning in Europe.
Major impacts on Western Europe-
1. They helped break down feudalism by increasing the authority of kings.
2. Some nobles died in battle without leaving on heir. Their lands passed to the king.
3. Some nobles add their land in an effort to raise money to pay the special tax levied by the king to offset the cost of the crusades.
4. Some nobles gave their selves a chance to buy their freedom in an effort to raise money they needed to buy armor and weapon.
5. Some men who could by their way out of feudal obligation gained the crusades. Many died. That reduced workforce. If a farm failed it passed to the king.
6. From their exposure to superior Muslim technology Europeans learned how to build better ships and use a compass.
7. Western Europe began to express an interest in trade. The crusaders brought back heavy goods. These items were vastly popular.
Trade – Neighbors.
Goods- silk, spices, sugar, art, literature.
1. Stimulated trade by increasing the demand for middle eastern products.
2. Trade in Middle Eastern.